Renowned for its biodiversity, the area could quite possibly be one of the oldest Pleistocene shelters of the South American continent. There is a proven existence of 965 species of wild plants and 59 of cultivated plants, 450 species of birds, 102 species of mammals, over 130 species of reptiles and amphibians and 250 different fish species, but studies and investigation are still far from being exhausted.
National Reserve Pacaya-Samiria is the natural habitat for lots of wild animals and trees, as well as exuberant aquatic life: more than 500 bird species, 102 mammalians, 240 reptiles, 58 amphibians, 256 fishes and 1024 wild and cultivated vegetal species. In the reserve many species are protected: black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), dugongo (Trichechus inunguis), water turtle (Podocnemis unifilis), spider ape (Ateles sp.), giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), pink dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) and grey dolphin (Sotalia fluviatilis).
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